Forcibly increase maximum volume?

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Forcibly increase maximum volume?

Postby Max_E » Fri Jun 29, 2012 12:16 am

OSS4 works great on my Thinkpad T510... for the most part. This is everything sound-related I can find in lshw:
Code: Select all
           *-multimedia UNCLAIMED
                description: Audio device
                product: High Definition Audio Controller
                vendor: nVidia Corporation
                physical id: 0.1
                bus info: pci@0000:01:00.1
                version: a1
                width: 32 bits
                clock: 33MHz
                capabilities: bus_master cap_list
                configuration: latency=0
                resources: memory:cdefc000-cdefffff
[snip]
        *-multimedia
             description: Audio device
             product: 5 Series/3400 Series Chipset High Definition Audio
             vendor: Intel Corporation
             physical id: 1b
             bus info: pci@0000:00:1b.0
             version: 06
             width: 64 bits
             clock: 33MHz
             capabilities: bus_master cap_list
             configuration: driver=oss_hdaudio latency=0
             resources: irq:17 memory:f2420000-f2423fff


Ossmix output settings are all maxed out, and won't go higher than this:
Code: Select all
Selected mixer 0/High Definition Audio 0x14f15069
Known controls are:
jack.black.mode1 <pcm1|pcm2> (currently pcm1)
jack.black.mode2 <pcm1|pcm2|input> (currently pcm1)
jack.int-speaker.mode <pcm1|pcm2> (currently pcm1)
jack.int-mic [<leftvol>:<rightvol>] (currently 47.9:47.9 dB)
jack.black.mode3 <pcm3|input> (currently pcm3)
record.rec1 [<leftvol>:<rightvol>] (currently 79.9:79.9 dB)
record.rec1.rec1 <select1|select2|int-mic|mix> (currently int-mic)
record.rec2 [<leftvol>:<rightvol>] (currently 79.9:79.9 dB)
record.rec2.rec2 <select1|select2|int-mic|mix> (currently int-mic)
record.rec3 [<leftvol>:<rightvol>] (currently 77.9:77.9 dB)
record.rec3.rec3 <select1|select2|int-mic|mix> (currently int-mic)
misc.pcm11 [<leftvol>:<rightvol>] (currently 72.9:72.9 dB)
misc.pcm21 [<leftvol>:<rightvol>] (currently 73.9:73.9 dB)
misc.beep <monovol> (currently 27.9 dB)
misc.select1 [<leftvol>:<rightvol>] (currently 39.9:39.9 dB)
misc.select2 [<leftvol>:<rightvol>] (currently 39.9:39.9 dB)
misc.pcm12 [<leftvol>:<rightvol>] (currently 73.9:73.9 dB)
misc.pcm22 [<leftvol>:<rightvol>] (currently 73.9:73.9 dB)
misc.mix <pcm1|pcm2> (currently pcm1)
vmix0-enable ON|OFF (currently ON)
vmix0-rate <decimal value> (currently 48000) (Read-only)
vmix0-channels <Stereo|Multich> (currently Stereo)
vmix0-src <Fast|High|OFF> (currently Fast)
vmix0-outvol <monovol> (currently 25.0 dB)
vmix0-invol <monovol> (currently 10.7 dB)
vmix0.pcm7 [<leftvol>:<rightvol>] (currently 25.0:25.0 dB) ("plugin-containe")
vmix0.pcm8 [<leftvol>:<rightvol>] (currently 25.0:25.0 dB)
vmix0.pcm9 [<leftvol>:<rightvol>] (currently 24.8:24.8 dB)
vmix0.pcm10 [<leftvol>:<rightvol>] (currently 25.0:25.0 dB)

The maximum sound output (both speakers and headphones) of the laptop using OSS4 is nowhere near as high as it is on Windows, so I know it's capable of more. Is there any knob to twiddle that I may have missed?

I'm already compiling OSS from the hg repository, so I'd even be willing to hack a higher maximum volume into the source code somehow, if that's possible.
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Re: Forcibly increase maximum volume?

Postby igorzwx » Fri Jun 29, 2012 5:37 am

Max_E wrote:Thinkpad T510 [Intel HDA]
Ossmix output settings are all maxed out
The maximum sound output (both speakers and headphones) of the laptop using OSS4 is nowhere near as high as it is on Windows, so I know it's capable of more. Is there any knob to twiddle that I may have missed?

I'm already compiling OSS from the hg repository, so I'd even be willing to hack a higher maximum volume into the source code somehow, if that's possible.


It seems that Windows has a kind of PulseAudio inside:
Windows 7-How to increase volume over maximum.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oDplLI2LtsU

OSS4 also has a kind of PulseAudio inside. It is named "vmix". It might be hacked, perhaps.
vmix - Virtual Mixer audio driver.
http://manuals.opensound.com/usersguide/vmix.html

Why do you need loud sound on a laptop? Music? Movies? Skype? Or else?


[CARGO CULT] Problem #1: Linux isn't exactly the same as Windows.
You'd be amazed how many people make this complaint. They come to Linux, expecting to find essentially a free, open-source version of Windows. Quite often, this is what they've been told to expect by over-zealous Linux users...
Every Windows user who tries Linux, does so because they hope it will be better than what they've got.
http://linux.oneandoneis2.org/LNW.htm


Most Ubuntu users start as Windows users (though, occasionally, they can be using other Linux's). But they all go through the same phases.
Read more: Evolution of an Ubuntu user


Thinkpad T510 has been "sanctified" for Ubuntu. It is a kosher laptop (in this sense).
The Lenovo Thinkpad T510 laptop has been awarded the status of Certified for Ubuntu
The Lenovo Thinkpad T520 laptop has been awarded the status of Certified for Ubuntu

Since certain Lenovo laptops have been "ritually sanctified" by for Ubuntu, the true believers, "open source" enthusiasts, and semi-deaf Windows users may try to install Linux on such "kosher laptops" in the hope that everything may work "out of the box". Disillusionment is bound to follow (as it usually happens with Cargo cultists).
Linux laptop experience with ThinkPad T520
Cargo Cult [Russian translation]

[Arch Linux] RE: Random kernel panic since upgrade to 3.4 kernel
2012-07-07
I have the same issues here on my Thinkpad T510 (signature). The panic only occurs at boot in cold state, after powering the laptop off and on again, it just works flawless. I'm running the nvidia card only, my intel card is disabled in BIOS. Also, my laptop wont wake up from S3 Suspend to RAM. It just locks up and makes strange noises when I press the power button. I also have an intel wlan card.
Will know try to install the lts kernel...
Lenovo Thinkpad T510 - Arch x86_64 - GNOME3
Core i7 M 620 - 4GB RAM - NVIDIA NVS 3100M - 320GB HDD
https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php ... 5#p1126515


Disillusionment and frustration may trigger dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This means "a non-specific illness syndrome (i.e., set of signs and symptoms) in which affected areas of cognition may be memory, attention, language, and problem solving". The most common early symptom of dementia is, perhaps, deafness or hearing loss: Hearing Loss and Dementia
Notice that dementia (according to modern science) is not a disease, but rather a set of "problems". It is a modern way of life (in this sense). As the numbers of the deaf and demented grow, it may become a norm, or a common way of life.
However, it might be unrealistic to expect that OSS4 community may provide a "dementia-friendly environment" for semi-deaf Ubuntu/Windows users.
Last edited by igorzwx on Wed Jul 18, 2012 3:26 pm, edited 8 times in total.
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Re: Forcibly increase maximum volume?

Postby Max_E » Fri Jun 29, 2012 6:04 am

Can vmix controls be turned up higher using vmix.conf than they can with ossxmix? All the sliders in ossxmix are maxxed.

I don't need "loud" sound, but audible sound would be nice. I can't even hear my laptop speakers unless there's no other noise in the room whatsoever, especially with Flash playback. Headphones are a little more usable. But on Windows, if I have the volume at maximum, then the headphones hurt a little. With OSS4, I have to have all the sliders pegged at maximum in order to get what I'd describe as a "medium" volume.

BTW on Windows there is no clipping or other artifacts to suggest that the speakers are being overdriven.
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Re: Forcibly increase maximum volume?

Postby igorzwx » Fri Jun 29, 2012 6:16 am

Max_E wrote:Can vmix controls be turned up higher using vmix.conf than they can with ossxmix? All the sliders in ossxmix are maxxed.

I don't need "loud" sound, but audible sound would be nice. I can't even hear my laptop speakers or headphones unless there's no other noise in the room whatsoever, especially with Flash playback.


Usually, OSS4 on laptops with Intel HDA is not very loud, but it is audible.
With Sennheiser Headphones/Headsets, you have to reduce the volume (sometimes, to minimum).

Is it your personal problem? Do others find it audible?
http://en-de.sennheiser.com/service-sup ... -capacity/

If it is not audible for normal people, you may need to fix the driver.

----------------------------------------------------
EDIT:

Max_E wrote:I can't even hear my laptop speakers or headphones unless there's no other noise in the room whatsoever.


This probably means deafness or hearing loss, because another user had already reported [January 22, 2012] that OSS4 sound is "just fine" with headphones on the same ThinkPad T510 (with the same Fast resampler!!!).

Nyar wrote:[January 22, 2012] I'm using ThinkPad T510 having Intel sound card with Parabola GNU/Linux (Arch Linux based distro).
It seems to work just fine in applications with OSS support (MPD for example), still only through headphones.

Code: Select all
$ ossmix
vmix0-enable ON|OFF (currently ON)
vmix0-rate <decimal value> (currently 48000) (Read-only)
vmix0-src <Fast|High|OFF> (currently Fast)

viewtopic.php?f=3&t=4621#p18177


Beyond Audibility: Hearing Loss and the Perception of Speech
In background noise, listeners with hearing impairment may have more difficulty following the stream of speech. The noise may fill in the low-amplitude portions of the envelope so that words and syllables are less clearly separated in time. When the background noise is fluctuating, people with normal hearing can often hear speech in the regions of reduced noise, allowing them to recognize speech at less favorable signal-to-noise ratios. In contrast, people with hearing loss are not able to take advantage of the interruptions in background noise, and thus have difficulty understanding speech in noise whether it is steady or intermittent. http://www.asha.org/Publications/leader ... 91103b.htm


The symptoms of "hearing loss" are rather obvious. You may try a hearing test before it is too late.
Hearing loss is difficult to cure, it is almost always permanent and progressing. A "magic cure" (if it exists) might be more effective
when it is applied in the early stages of the disease than after extensive degenerative changes have permanently damaged the brain.

How Do I Know If I Have A Hearing Loss?
Ask yourself the following questions and if your answer is "yes" to any of these questions, you may have a potential hearing loss and should have your hearing tested:
* Do I have a problem hearing on the telephone?
* Do I have trouble hearing when there is noise in the background?
* Is it hard for me to follow a conversation when two or more people talk at once?
* Do I have to strain to understand a conversation?
* Do people seem to mumble or not speak clearly?
* Do I misunderstand what others are saying and respond inappropriately?
* Do I often ask people to repeat themselves?
* Do I have trouble understanding the speech of women and children?
* Do people complain that I turn the TV or radio volume up too high?
* Do I hear a ringing, roaring, or hissing sound a lot?
http://www.audio-logics.com/hearing-loss/
Last edited by igorzwx on Tue Jul 17, 2012 8:23 pm, edited 10 times in total.
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Re: Forcibly increase maximum volume?

Postby Max_E » Fri Jun 29, 2012 6:22 am

I'm not going deaf. I've tried to play videos for others at work, they've commented on the problem as well. Anyway, on Windows with the exact same laptop, there are no problems with it.
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Re: Forcibly increase maximum volume?

Postby igorzwx » Fri Jun 29, 2012 6:26 am

Max_E wrote:I'm not going deaf. I've tried to play videos for others at work, they've commented on the problem as well. Anyway, on Windows with the exact same laptop, there are no problems with it.


Does it work with ALSA?
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Re: Forcibly increase maximum volume?

Postby Max_E » Fri Jun 29, 2012 6:38 am

Just tried an Ubuntu live USB with stock ALSA+Pulse setup. It's definitely louder that way.
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Re: Forcibly increase maximum volume?

Postby igorzwx » Fri Jun 29, 2012 6:49 am

Max_E wrote:Just tried an Ubuntu live USB with stock ALSA+Pulse setup. It's definitely louder that way.


It might be audible with cheapest Sennheiser things, such as Sennheiser PC 131, PC 141, HD 201.

KNOWN PROBLEMS
In general Azalia based systems (laptops/motherboards) would require a custom driver to work properly. Due to enormous number of different systems it is not possible to develop such custom drivers for all systems. A generic driver is used for systems that don't have dedicated drivers.

Unfortunately the mixer and control panel interface (see ossmix ) for "generic" systems is very cryptic and difficult to understand. To solve problems with volumes or signal routing you need to start ossxmix and change the controls one at time until you get the desired effect. http://manuals.opensound.com/usersguide/hdaudio.html


However codecs are different. To make things even worse motherboard
manufacturers have complete freedom to decide which I/O pin they connect
the jacks and other audio inputs and outputs. It is not enough to write
just one mixer driver for each codec. This needs to be done by hand for
every single motherboard (unless there are boards that have the pins
assigned in the same way).

The mixgen.c can be used to create a skeleton of a mixer driver. Then
the result can be fine tuned by using trial and error approach.
http://permalink.gmane.org/gmane.comp.a ... devel/1155
Last edited by igorzwx on Fri Jun 29, 2012 6:51 am, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Forcibly increase maximum volume?

Postby Max_E » Fri Jun 29, 2012 6:50 am

All right, so it looks like I'll have to mod the code? I'll post a patch if I can manage to get anywhere.

EDIT: To be clear, headphones are usable (although quiet,) external speakers are usable, so it's not like my laptop is completely crippled sound-wise.
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Re: Forcibly increase maximum volume?

Postby igorzwx » Fri Jun 29, 2012 6:58 am

Max_E wrote:EDIT: To be clear, headphones are usable (although quiet)


What kind of headphones? A sort of Logitech crap?

Max_E wrote:I don't need "loud" sound, but audible sound would be nice. I can't even hear my laptop speakers unless there's no other noise in the room whatsoever, especially with Flash playback.

Code: Select all
vmix0-src <Fast|High|OFF> (currently Fast)


The "Fast" resampler is also crap, it may render Flash playback inaudible.
The so-called "Production quality" resampler is better.

Do you often fail to hear the telephone or doorbell, even when the ambient noise level is low?
http://en-de.sennheiser.com/service-sup ... y/symptons
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Re: Forcibly increase maximum volume?

Postby Max_E » Fri Jun 29, 2012 8:45 am

Thanks for the tip! I just tried setting the resampler to "High" and indeed it did help a lot! It's 2 AM now and I can't make any noise, but tomorrow I'll try it with the laptop speakers. That will be the true test.
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Re: Forcibly increase maximum volume?

Postby igorzwx » Fri Jun 29, 2012 9:39 am

Max_E wrote:Thanks for the tip! I just tried setting the resampler to "High" and indeed it did help a lot! It's 2 AM now and I can't make any noise, but tomorrow I'll try it with the laptop speakers. That will be the true test.


The ultimate "true test" might be a kind of hearing test. It may clarify your "testimonies".

Hearing aids [and, of course, resamplers, and headphones] that best reproduce musical selections would also be the ones with which the highest speech perception scores could be obtained [speech perception in noise]...
The aids judged to reproduce music with the highest fidelity were also the ones with which hearing aid users understand speech best. http://www.hearingresearch.org/ross/hea ... rogram.php


The "High" resampler is also crap, although it is better than "Fast" resampler. The deaf may not hear the difference.

plmegalo wrote:"High quality" is really awfull, nearly worst than ALSA viewtopic.php?f=3&t=3543&start=30#p15731


1. You may simply disable resampling in vmix with a mouse click (reload OSS4 to ensure that it is disabled).

2. To enable "Production quality" resampler, you may need to recompile OSS4:
viewtopic.php?f=3&t=3543&start=30#p15703
viewtopic.php?f=3&t=3543&start=30#p15711

In this particular case, it might be sufficient to disable resampling in vmix, because the HW resampler of Intel HDA is comparable with OSS4 "production quality".

EXAMPLES:

1. settings for Intel HDA (resampling is disabled in vmix):

Code: Select all
$ ossmix | grep vmix0-src
vmix0-src <Fast|High|High+|Production|OFF> (currently OFF)


2. setting for "production quality" resampler (Intel HDA):

Code: Select all
$ ossmix | grep vmix
vmix0-enable ON|OFF (currently ON)
vmix0-rate <decimal value> (currently 192000) (Read-only)
vmix0-channels <Stereo|Multich> (currently Stereo)
vmix0-src <Fast|High|High+|Production|OFF> (currently Production)


To find out which sample rates are supported, run:

Code: Select all
$ ossinfo -v9


Before reloading reloading OSS, you may want to run:

Code: Select all
$ sudo /usr/lib/oss/scripts/killprocs.sh


This will close any program which may use vmix (e.g. OSSXMix, media players, Skype, etc.)
After all programs occupying vmix are terminated, you can reload OSS:

Code: Select all
$ sudo soundoff
$ sudo soundon


Then press Alt+F2 and enter "ossxmix -b". OSS Mixer will emerge in the system tray.

[HowTo] Changing the Sample Rate (in vmix):
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/OS ... ample_Rate

OSS4 Manual
https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/OSS

To summarize: OSS4 might be very dangerous for health, because the worst resamplers are enabled by default.

Since low quality resamplers may render Flash playback (or mp3 podcasts) inaudible, semi-deaf Ubuntu users (equipped with cheap Logitech headsets, or other sort of crap) are likely to increase loudness in an effort to improve "sound quality". It may cause permanent hearing loss, cognitive impairment, dementia (маразм, слабоумие), madness and stupidity (see Hearing Loss and Dementia). To enable the OSS4 "production quality" resampler, one has to modify the source code of OSS4 and recompile it. This might be a difficult task for a large majority of Ubuntu users, especially for those who suffer from dementia, Alzheimer disease, and mental disorder.

Beyond Audibility: Hearing Loss and the Perception of Speech
In background noise, listeners with hearing impairment may have more difficulty following the stream of speech. The noise may fill in the low-amplitude portions of the envelope so that words and syllables are less clearly separated in time. When the background noise is fluctuating, people with normal hearing can often hear speech in the regions of reduced noise, allowing them to recognize speech at less favorable signal-to-noise ratios. In contrast, people with hearing loss are not able to take advantage of the interruptions in background noise, and thus have difficulty understanding speech in noise whether it is steady or intermittent (for an excellent review of speech perception in noise, see Assmann & Summerfield, 2004).
http://www.asha.org/Publications/leader ... 91103b.htm
Assmann, P. F. and Summerfield, A. Q. (2004). The perception of speech under adverse conditions. S. Greenberg, W.A. Ainsworth, A.N. Popper and R.R. Fay (Eds.) Speech Processing in the Auditory System. Volume 14, pp. 231-308, Springer Handbook of Auditory Research.


One of the basic problems in the study of speech is how to deal with the noise in the speech signal. This is shown by the difficulty that computer speech recognition systems have with recognizing human speech. These programs can do well at recognizing speech when they have been trained on a specific speaker's voice, and under quiet conditions. However, these systems often do poorly in more realistic listening situations where humans are able to understand speech without difficulty.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speech_perception#Noise


Speech perception in noise depends on language skills:

Speech perception in noise by monolingual, bilingual and trilingual listeners.
There is strong evidence that bilinguals have a deficit in speech perception for their second language compared with monolingual speakers under unfavourable listening conditions (e.g., noise or reverberation), despite performing similarly to monolingual speakers under quiet conditions. This deficit persists for speakers highly proficient in their second language and is greater in those who learned the language later in life. These findings have important educational implications because the number of multilingual children is increasing worldwide, and many of these children are being taught in their non-native language under poor classroom acoustic conditions.
AIMS: The performance of monolingual, bilingual and trilingual speakers on an English speech perception task was examined in both quiet and noisy conditions. Trilingual performance was compared with that of monolingual and bilingual speakers.
PROCEDURES: Monolingual speakers of English and early bilingual and trilingual speakers (i.e., acquired English as a second/third language before the age of 6 years) were recruited. Their fluency in English was tested by interview and by a questionnaire assessing their knowledge and use of the language. Audiological evaluation confirmed normal hearing in all participants. English speech perception was tested in quiet and in different levels of noise (50, 55, 60, 65 and 70 dB SPL) using the Speech Perception in Noise (SPIN) Test.
RESULTS: Bilingual and trilingual listeners performed similarly to monolingual listeners in quiet conditions, but their performance declined more rapidly in noise and was significantly poorer at 65 and 70 dB SPL. Trilingual listeners performed less well than bilinguals at these noise levels, but not significantly so. A subgroup of five bilingual speakers who learned Arabic and English simultaneously since birth were poorer at higher levels of noise than monolinguals, but not significantly so. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21771217


The experienced bilinguals (adults or teenagers) might be better trained for "speech recognition in noise" and solving difficult problems:

Bilinguals Juggle Sounds
New evidence suggests the experience of bilingualism changes how the nervous system responds to sound. A Northwestern University study provides biological evidence that bilinguals' rich experience with language "fine-tunes" their auditory nervous system and helps them juggle linguistic input in ways that enhance attention and working memory.
For the study, published in the April 30 issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the researchers recorded the brainstem responses to complex sounds (cABR) in 23 bilingual (English and Spanish) teenagers and 25 English-only-speaking teens as they heard speech sounds in two conditions.
In quiet conditions, the groups responded similarly. But against a backdrop of background noise, bilingual brains were significantly better at encoding the fundamental frequency of speech sounds known to underlie pitch perception and grouping of auditory objects. This enhancement was linked with advantages in auditory attention.
"Bilinguals are natural jugglers. The bilingual juggles linguistic input and, it appears, automatically pays greater attention to relevant versus irrelevant sounds. Rather than promoting linguistic confusion, bilingualism promotes improved 'inhibitory control,' or the ability to pick out relevant speech sounds and ignore others." http://www.asha.org/Publications/leader ... ,-2012.htm


The problem is unfavourable listening conditions (e.g., noise, reverberation, bad headphones, dreadful resamplers, etc.). The "strong, clever and healthy" may solve the problem of "speech recognition in noise", the "weak, stupid and ill" may fail.

Speech Perception in Noise
The speech perception of hearing impaired subjects is very often affected much more by noise than is the speech perception of normally hearing subjects. This is largely because of the two most important effects of reduced frequency selectivity. The first of these effects is the broadening and flattening of peaks as a consequence of broader and often asymmetric auditory filters. The second of these effects is related to the increased phase sensitivity that co-occurs with reduced frequency selectivity.
Read more: http://clas.mq.edu.au/perception/speech ... ption.html


A sensorineural hearing loss... mostly affects hearing acuity in the high frequency range. The high pitched speech sounds (such as "s","f","sh","t") play a crucial role in our ability to understand speech clearly. This is why a person with a sensorineural loss will often say "I can hear but often I don't understand what is said." http://www.hearingcenteronline.com/clin ... ips02.html

Avoid trying to have conversations from one room to another; or in rooms with intense noise (washing machine, vacuum cleaner, loud music, etc.). http://www.hearingcenteronline.com/clin ... ips01.html


In the alveolar hissing sibilants [s] and [z], the back of the tongue forms a narrow channel (is grooved) to focus the stream of air more intensely, resulting in a high pitch. With the hushing sibilants (occasionally termed shibilants), such as English [ʃ], [tʃ], [ʒ], and [dʒ], the tongue is flatter, and the resulting pitch lower...
Sibilants are louder than their non-sibilant counterparts, and most of their acoustic energy occurs at higher frequencies than non-sibilant fricatives. [s] has the most acoustic strength at around 8,000 Hz, but can reach as high as 10,000 Hz. [ʃ] has the bulk of its acoustic energy at around 4,000 Hz, but can extend up to around 8,000 Hz. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sibilant


Hint: Try to record your "s" and build its sonogram with SoX.
A howto for SoX sonograms is here: viewtopic.php?f=3&t=4423
The official SoX manual is here: http://sox.sourceforge.net/sox.html
Audacity also allows to view sonograms, although of low quality, but they can be played, so that you can easily find "s" in words.
You can also resample your "s" with a linear resampler, and build its sonogram.

The perception of sound depends on hearing loss and dementia. The "kids with old ears and old brains" perceive the reality in a way that might be very different from that of normal people. If sound is subjectively perceived as "inaudible", or it is simply difficult to understand normal speech, they are likely to increase loudness, instead of changing resamplers, or headphones, or taking other measures to improve sound quality.

Speech recognition is a kind of "recognition of patterns". The result depends on the exactitude of the input data and the algorithm of "pattern recognition". If the ears fail to provide "exact data" and the brain fails to work, it might very difficult to understand normal speech.

The Fast resampler of OSS4 is not likely to hinder speech recognition for normal people, although, of course, they may notice "irritating distortions" and may try to do something about sound quality. However, the same Fast resampler may render normal speech unintelligible for semi-deaf and demented, simply because their ears and brains fail to work properly. Since the "users with old ears and old brains" are likely to constitute a large majority of Linux users, it might be reasonable to remove low quality resamplers from the OSS4 code. It does not mean, however, that minorities should be ignored, but it might be difficult to imagine who may need such crap like the Fast and High resamplers. If someone really need such resamplers for a kind of "scientific research" or psychoacoustic experiments, she (or he) might be instructed on how to enable them, although, of course, psychoacoustic experiments on human beings might be seen as immoral.

Hearing loss is more common than ever before. About 16% of American adults have an impaired ability to hear speech, and more than 30% of Americans over age 20 — an estimated 55 million people — have lost some high-frequency hearing...
If you're using the earbuds that come with an iPod and you turn the volume up to about 90% of maximum and you listen a total of two hours a day, five days a week, our best estimates are that the people who have more sensitive ears will develop a rather significant degree of hearing loss — on the order of 40 decibels (dB). That means the quietest sounds audible are 40 dB loud. Now, this is high-pitched hearing loss, so a person can still hear sounds and understand most speech. The impact is going to be most clearly noted when the background-noise level goes up, when you have to focus on what someone is saying. Then it can really start to impair your ability to communicate. http://www.time.com/time/health/article ... 59,00.html


High-pitched hearing loss coupled with background-noise may explain the effect of the Fast resampler and "noise in the room" reported by Max_E in this thread, although of course, a kind of hearing test might be required to clarify the problem. High-pitched hearing loss may deceive you into believing that your hearing is normal, because you may still be able to "hear sounds and understand most speech", if (and only if) the background-noise level is low. However, if the background-noise level goes up, it might be difficult to understand normal speech.

Your headphones can turn you deaf
In Russian: Плохие наушники и любовь к концертам повышают риск глухоты

YouTube: What's it like to be hearing impaired?
YouTube: Hearing Loss Simulation
YouTube: Simulated Sensorineural Hearing Loss
YouTube: Simulated Conductive Hearing Loss
YouTube: Hearing Aid – FM Simulation.avi
YouTube: Adult hearing test - Audiology at the University of Canterbury
YouTube: How to Read an Audiogram
YouTube: Audiology: Hearing Aids

YouTube: Hearing Loss and Dementia
YouTube: What's the connection between hearing loss and dementia?
YouTube: Alzheimer's and Dementia Have Been Linked to Hearing Loss

The MP3 Generation: At Risk for Hearing Loss?
Loud rock music contributed to hearing loss among baby boomers, but MP3 players are poised to make the problem much worse for the next generation... These devices, which pump music through headphones directly into the ear canal, enable the user to overcome the rumble of the subway or the drone of an airplane engine without drawing angry shouts of "turn it down!"

Kids With Old Ears
An article in the journal Pediatrics estimated that 12.5% of children aged 6 to 19 -- about 5.2 million -- have noise-induced hearing loss. "Our own research shows that 16% of 6- to 19-year-olds have early signs of hearing loss at the range most readily damaged by loud sounds," says William Martin, PhD, of the Oregon Health and Science University Tinnitus Clinic in Portland.

Hearing Loss Goes Unnoticed
Denying the danger of noise-induced hearing loss would not be so easy if loud music made the ears bleed, but the early symptoms tend to come on gradually.
"People may notice that voices sound muffled, and that they have a reduced ability to follow a conversation in a noisy environment such as a restaurant or a party. They might hear ringing in their ears. In its worst form, the ringing can get so loud that it interferes with sleep."

Music Dependency
"When I ask kids why they're not worried about hearing loss, they say they have faith that medical technology will find a way to restore their hearing"...
Mary Florentine, an audiologist at Northeastern University, suspects that some young people actually have what she calls a loud music dependency disorder (LMDD).
"I asked people why they continued to expose themselves to loud music even though they knew it was harming their hearing, and they said they couldn't stop listening," says Florentine. "They said, 'When I stop listening I get sad and depressed, and then I go back to it because I can't take it after a while. I start listening again at moderate levels, but it doesn't do anything for me, so I start to listen at high levels.'"
In a study, Florentine and colleagues adapted a test normally used to identify alcohol dependency. For example, the question, "Do you feel you are a normal drinker?" became, "Do you feel you listen at normal levels?" Eight of the 90 participants who answered the 32 questions had scores in the same range as substance abusers...

Put a Lid on It
Limiting the volume of MP3 players may seem like an obvious solution...
France and other European countries have enacted laws that limit the volume of iPods and other devices to 100 decibels.
But Fligor believes such efforts produce a false sense of safety.
"Capping the volume focuses on the sound level, not the dose," he said. "If you set the cap at 100, that doesn't give you license to listen all day."
Besides, as soon as those European nations capped the sound level of iPods, web sites started providing detailed instructions on how to override that limit. http://children.webmd.com/guide/hearing-loss-mp3s


Acoustic Neuromas
...loud music and other intense sounds may also place listeners at risk for acoustic neuromas, which are benign, usually slow-growing tumors that first develop on the vestibular branch of the auditory nerve. The tumor arises within the internal auditory canal from overproduction of Schwann cells, which surround and insulate the cochlear and vestibular nerve fibers. Acoustic neuromas are usually unilateral and sporadic, with unknown cause, occurring more often in women and in people between the ages of 30 and 60 years. In rare cases, the tumors are bilateral as part of an inherited condition known as neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF 2).
According to National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), unilateral acoustic neuromas account for approximately 8 percent of all tumors inside the skull.2 Early identification through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the key to successful treatment, including the preservation of hearing, balance and facial nerve function.

Noise Exposure and Chromosomal Damage
...noise damage to the outer hair cells and surrounding tissues may result in DNA replication errors during the body's attempts at cellular repair. This may in turn lead to "chromosomal change essential for neoplastic transformation."
The most likely chromosomal alteration in acoustic neuroma development is a gene on chromosome 22, which is the second smallest human chromosome, containing between 500 and 800 genes. Seventy-six genes on the chromosome are described as "disease genes." Scientists believe that this particular gene produces a protein that controls the growth of Schwann cells. When the gene malfunctions, Schwann cell growth is uncontrolled, resulting in a tumor. In bilateral tumors, the faulty gene on chromosome 22 is inherited. In unilateral tumors, scientists hypothesize that this gene somehow loses its ability to function properly.
http://audiology.advanceweb.com/Article ... order.aspx


A paper by Linda Walsh of Drew University, A Clinically Diagnosed Case of Loud Music Dependency Disorder, examines loud-music listening behavior and characteristics to determine if it is a clinical disorder like substance dependence, and to understand why some individuals continue listening to loud music despite having tinnitus and/or noise-induced hearing loss as a direct result of their music-listening behaviors. This present study reports the results of two independent clinical interviews of an individual whose music-listening behaviors meet clinical criteria for a behavioral dependency disorder as defined by an adapted version of the DSM-IV Criterion for Substance Dependence issued by the American Psychiatric Association (1994). This finding appears to confirm the existence of a true dependency on loud music, called Loud Music Dependency Disorder (LMDD) http://www.bostonaudiosociety.org/past_ ... es_msg.htm


If an Ubuntu user suffers from the so-called "loud music dependency disorder" (LMDD), he may want to increase the "maximum sound level" to get an extra kick. ALSA and PulseAudio may help to get the much desired kick, but the problem is that the addicted tend to increase loudness further and further until they become completely deaf. The Ubuntu gurus have already published a lot of detailed instructions on how to override the limit of loudness. They may surely help Ubuntu users to achieve the state of deafness and dementia. The freedom of "open-source software" may have negative consequences (in this sense). Anything can be misused, and freedom is not an exception.

Open-source software (OSS) tends to be buggy and ill-designed, and, therefore, it may destroy human brain and computers (for instance, processor might be melted, because the fan does not work). It does not seem to be a big problem, because the number of Linux users is comparable with the numbers of the deaf and demented:
http://blogs.adobe.com/open/2011/06/foc ... lient.html
http://research.gallaudet.edu/Demographics/deaf-US.php
http://idrp.pbrc.edu/faq.htm

However, the numbers of the deaf and demented seem to be rapidly growing, while the number of Linux users has dropped dramatically and continues to decline, although it was expected that the deaf and demented might be perfectly happy with PulseAudio. This "paradox" has to be somehow explained. It might natural to presume that the demented users may perceive the reality in a very strange way, and, "from their perspective", Linux might be seen as "crap", because it fails to work, or destroys processors. If the problem is a wrong "perspective", it should be corrected. The simplest solution might a radical reform, a kind of "symbolic destruction of the old way of life" , a sort of perestroika. This is, of course, a standard Cargo Cult solution for all problems. It deserves a try. Notice that "perestroika is often argued to be a cause of the dissolution of the Soviet Union", although it was expected to produce a kind of "socialism with a human face". If radical reforms killed the Evil Empire, they might be able to kill Red Hat, ALSA, PulseAudio, SystemD, and the like.

As Ingo Molnar, a Linux kernel developer from Red Hat Software, put it so well:

The basic failure of the free Linux desktop is that it's, perversely, not free enough...
The desktop Linux suckage we are seeing today - on basically all the major Linux distributions - are the final symptoms of mistakes made 10-20 years ago - the death cries of a platform.
Desktop Linux distributions are... centrally planned, hierarchical organizations instead of distributed, democratic free societies...
Desktop Linux users are, naturally, voting with their feet: they prefer an open marketplace over (from their perspective) micro-managed, closed and low quality Linux desktop distributions. https://plus.google.com/109922199462633 ... gdeFDfRzNe


Of course, "Linux with a human face" might be more attractive to "kids with old ears and old brains". The quality of Linux kernel, Linux drivers, and other Linux software might be difficult to improve, but "transparency", "openness", "freedom of choice" and other symbolic attributes of "freedom, liberty and democracy" might be somehow enhanced. In particular, the demented users might be allowed to destroy their computers by open-source software. They should not be completely deprived of the freedom to do what they want simply because they are human beings. They do need a kind of "friendly environment". It is believed that "a dementia-friendly environment helps people with dementia reach their full potential and does not cause needless disability" Dementia-friendly environments

The destruction of personal computers by Arch Linux and Ubuntu (or other "open-source crap" of the sort) might be tolerated to a certain extent viewtopic.php?f=3&t=4349#p18327 However, the destruction of personal health does create a social problem. It might be too expensive for "free-market economies" severely undermined by the 2007–2012 global financial crisis The destruction of personal computers may stimulate production and reduce unemployment rates, but the destruction of health is going to mean a disaster, as the numbers of the deaf and demented grow.

David Cameron has described dementia as being a "national crisis", affecting 800, 000 people in the United Kingdom... The Canadian Medical Association Journal has reported that driving with dementia could lead to severe injury or even death to self and others... Behaviour may be disorganized, restless or inappropriate. Some people become restless or wander about by day and sometimes at night... German nursing homes have installed fake bus stops so patients with dementia will "wait" for a bus there instead of wandering farther away. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dementia#R ... and_others


If Ubuntu were safe, it could be utilized as a fake Linux for patients with dementia. It could make them busy with "solving problems", although, of course, such problems might be too hard to solve. "When people suffering from dementia are put in circumstances beyond their abilities, there may be a sudden change to tears or anger" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dementia#R ... and_others

Ubuntu failed to provide a "dementia-friendly environment" largely because, perhaps, the Ubuntu developers themselves suffer from hearing loss and dementia to a certain extent. They constantly fail to solve problems, and, therefore, the Ubuntu users have to fix bugs themselves. Since dementia hinders "problem solving", the Ubuntu bug tracker may go astray (see: One bug report to rule them all). If the frustrated Ubuntu users may try Arch Linux, they are likely to destroy their computers (see, for example, laptop going to meltdown).

It might be difficult for OSS4 community to provide a "dementia-friendly environment" for Ubuntu users. However, certain precautions must be made to prevent semi-deaf and demented users from damaging their ears and brains by Open Sound System. First of all, it might be reasonable to ban PulseAudio as dangerous for health and remove potentially harmful instructions, such as Configuring PulseAudio for OSSv4, from OSS4 Wiki.

The problem is that "people who are hard of hearing are often unaware of their partial hearing loss" Partial hearing loss They may perceive normal sounds as "quiet", "muffled", "hard to hear", or "inaudible", and, therefore, they may try to increase loudness as much as possible.

Since low quality resamplers simulate deafness (sound is muffled, high frequencies are strongly distorted, etc.), a semi-deaf Ubuntu user may tend to increase loudness far beyond the critical level, trying to understand "muffled words" in YouTube videos. It may surely cause permanent deafness.

Does it affect the brain? The most common type of hearing loss seems to be "sensorineural hearing loss". It is said to be almost always permanent. "Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a type of hearing loss in which the root cause lies in the vestibulocochlear nerve (Cranial nerve VIII), the inner ear, or central processing centers of the brain". It does affect the brain and may trigger dementia. The most obvious sign of dementia is the inability to solve simple problems (this might be observed on Ubuntu forums).

"We listen with our ears but hear with our brains. It is simply not possible to separate audition and cognition..."
"The brain might have to reallocate resources to help with hearing at the expense of cognition." That may explain in part why straining to hear conversations over background noise in a loud restaurant can be mentally exhausting for anyone, hard of hearing or not. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/HEALTH/02/1 ... index.html


This means that low quality resamplers can damage the brain, cause mental disorder, and trigger dementia, because they simulate deafness (sounds are distorted and unclear). Straining to hear "muffled words" in YouTube videos can be mentally exhausting for Ubuntu users, when they are using the default resamplers of OSS4 (not to mention ALSA and PulseAudio). It may drive them mad. They feel that there is a problem, but they fail to comprehend and explain their "feelings". They ask strange questions simply because they are trying to understand, or somehow "rationalize", or interpret their obscure "feelings" and vague "thoughts".

30 million Americans have impaired hearing...
The risk of dementia appears to rise as hearing declines...
Poor hearing is a "harbinger of impending dementia" http://edition.cnn.com/2011/HEALTH/02/1 ... index.html


It is predicted that exposure to loud music will cause as many as 50 million Americans to suffer hearing loss by 2050. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loud_music#Health


A startling new survey conducted by the NFD [National Foundation for the Deaf] shows nearly half of New Zealands young people have potentially damaged their hearing by the time they reach age 25.
Used to having a choice of when and where they enjoy their music, Generation Y is blasting their ears for the greater part of every day on iPods, car stereos and laptops.
Health professionals are starting to see the kind of hearing loss in younger people typically found in aging adults...
“Today hearing loss is one of the leading and fastest growing serious disabilities in our modern society”...
Hearing loss can greatly affect education, employment and it could have a major impact on a person’s quality of life through impaired communication and social isolation.
But a devil may care attitude rules many of the 18-25 year olds surveyed who have already experienced symptoms of hearing damage.
Three quarters of those surveyed who listen to music regularly said it sounds better louder (above the safe level where it still sounds good). Many also said they wouldn’t wear ear plugs because they believed they affect sound quality and they didn’t want to look uncool. http://www.nfd.org.nz/?t=156


The Link Between Hearing Loss and Dementia
A new discovery gives you a new reason to check your hearing now
By Linda Childers | June 25, 2012
Need a reason to finally get your hearing checked? Try this: A new study has found that people who experience significant hearing loss as they age may also be at higher risk of developing dementia.
The study, conducted by researchers at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore in conjunction with the National Institute on Aging, found that older adults with hearing loss were more likely to develop cognitive decline over time than those who retain their hearing. While not all people who experience hearing loss will develop dementia, the study found that those with severe hearing loss were five times more likely to develop cognitive impairment, and that even mild hearing loss doubled one's risk.
http://nextavenue.org/article/2012-04/l ... d-dementia
See also: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3277836/
http://archneur.jamanetwork.com/article ... eid=802291


In a recent RNID study, three out of four 18-to-30-years-olds were found to have loud ringing in their ears after going to clubs or concerts - an early warning sign of hearing damage.
But only 59 per cent of the group was aware that these after effects were irreversible. Each time the damage occurs, it can lead to permanent hearing loss or tinnitus - constant noise in the ears - by middle age.
"Nerve damage will cause the muffled hearing they sometimes experience, which, by their forties, could become permanent," reports Smith. "They will find that they don't hear the consonants in received speech, so that the words blend together, making speech sound mumbled.
"It would definitely affect their jobs - mixing records would be almost impossible and hearing music in general would be difficult". http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/artic ... af-40.html


Loud noise (from music or other sources such as machinery or jet engines) can cause both temporary and permanent hearing loss.
Hearing loss means someone can't hear as well as other people do. For some people, that means not being able to hear at all.
If the noise around you is so loud that you have to shout to be heard, there is a chance that the mechanism inside your ear can be injured. Temporary hearing loss can happen after you've been exposed to loud noise for any duration. If you have temporary hearing loss, you won't be able to hear as well as you normally do for a while. Don't worry, it will go away (usually after a good night's sleep). But it means that the next time you're around loud noise, you should wear protection to avoid permanent hearing loss.
You also could have tinnitus (say: tih-neye-tus), which is a medical term for ringing in the ears. Your ears can feel "full," too. Although your hearing often returns to normal, the dangerous part is that you can lose it permanently if you listen to loud noise or music over and over again.
If someone is exposed to loud noise over a long period of time, like every day, permanent hearing loss can occur. This means the person's hearing won't ever be as good as it once was. That's why construction workers and factory workers need to wear ear protection. Lawn mowers and power tools, like chainsaws, also can be loud enough to affect someone's ability to hear high-pitched noises. This kind of noise also can cause a person to have tinnitus all the time.
Listening to loud music a lot can cause the same kind of damage, especially if headphones or ear buds are used.
http://kidshealth.org/kid/talk/qa/rock_music.html


NOTE: The link between "loud music", "hearing loss" and dementia (маразм, слабоумие) may elucidate the causes of the 2007–2012 global financial crisis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007%E2%80 ... ial_crisis
Since money was invented some thousands years ago, it should be possible to learn something from economic history http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Money#History The only problem might be ignorance and stupidity.

The link between "loud music", "hearing loss" and dementia (маразм, слабоумие) may also explain why PulseAudio is enabled by default in major Linux distributions such as Fedora, Ubuntu, Linux Mint, OpenSUSE, Arch Linux and so on. For example, almost all Arch Linux developers belong to Generation Y, also known as Deaf Generation. Such people are likely to suffer from hearing loss and dementia, although it is not yet clear "whether hearing loss is a marker for early-stage dementia or is actually a modifiable risk factor for dementia" Hearing Loss and Dementia The fact is that hearing loss and dementia appear together. They might be two sides of the same coin, but hearing loss can be exactly measured and detected at early stages, while the definition of dementia remains obscure and keeps changing as the number of the demented grows http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dementia

Don't worry! Since the numbers of the deaf and demented are rapidly growing, the deaf and demented may soon constitute a vast majority of the population, and, therefore, dementia (маразм, слабоумие) may cease to be regarded as illness, or a kind of deviation from the norm. It may become a "modern way of life", or a "form of happiness", or a sort of "creative chaos". It might be a funny future. To envision it in details, you may try to study Die Schildbürger. There is an English translation: Erich Kästner, Die Schildbürger - The Schildburghers (Deutsch - Englisch)

According to Wikipedia, "Dementia (taken from Latin, originally meaning "madness") is not a single disease, but rather a non-specific illness syndrome (i.e., set of signs and symptoms) in which affected areas of cognition may be memory, attention, language, and problem solving. It is normally required to be present for at least 6 months to be diagnosed; cognitive dysfunction that has been seen only over shorter times, in particular less than weeks, must be termed delirium". That is why, perhaps, Ubuntu users tend to ask very strange questions on Linux forums.

The behaviour of the demented may sometimes resemble a kind of drug addiction:

Dementia and the power of music
Big surprise recently when an old man with Alzheimer's – stooped over in his chair, mute, depressed, a member of the living dead – was given an iPod with his favourite music on, and, hey presto, came back to life. Lovely... Music perks you up. It gets to the bits of your brain that nothing else can reach. http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2012/ ... r-of-music


Seven out of ten under 30-year olds are experiencing symptoms of permanent hearing damage after listening to loud music – yet do nothing to prevent it. http://www.nfd.org.nz/120/Don


If the demented need a strong dose of loud digital music to "come back to life" (compare with cocaine addiction), the inevitable deafness may mean a catastrophe. As deafness progresses, semi-deaf Ubuntu users may resort to OSS4, because it is rumoured that OSS4 provides a "digital cocaine" of better quality which gives you an extra kick. If the developers hack the OSS4 code to increase loudness, it may only aggravate the problem. Moreover, OSS4 might be prohibited in Europe as dangerous for health. It is very probable, taking into account the policy of the European Commission and the growing public awareness of the problem
http://www.healthyhearing.com/content/a ... aring-loss
http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn1 ... olume.html

Simulation of Deafness

It is very difficult to simulate a hearing loss. In most cases, a hearing loss doesn't simply mean that sounds are not loud enough. For most people, having a hearing loss means that sounds are distorted or unclear, and while a hearing aid may make speech louder, it usually will not make speech clearer. http://www.openroad.net.au/access/dakit ... dout14.htm


mp3 samples can be downloaded here: Hearing Loss Sampler

Hearing Loss Sampler
This site offers visitors a sampling of the way different types of hearing loss sound. A short explanation of each type is presented alongside an audiogram. Some samplings include normal hearing, noise induced hearing loss (could be caused by unprotected hearing in industry, farming, or high volume mp3 players), age-related hearing loss, conductive loss due to fluid buildup in the ear, and sensorineural hearing loss. Most valuable for parents, family members, and school teams are the samplings near the bottom of the page because of the demonstration of what an FM system does to improve the speech signal for a person. http://www.fctd.info/resources/5075


Why does our hearing deteriorate?
http://en-de.sennheiser.com/service-sup ... aring-loss

Perhaps, 4Front Technologies may follow the example of SENNHEISER and publish all the necessary information about "hearing loss" for semi-deaf users. It might not be difficult to add "warnings" and links to the available resources in the net.
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